The linear reconstruction mapping in equation 3.8 can be used to derive the learning rule as explained in section 2.1. The parameters of the network are the weight vectors and the learning can be derived by gradient descent of the quadratic reconstruction error. The outputs of the network approximately minimise the same error function and therefore the derivatives of the outputs can be ignored as in equation 2.2.

We would like our network to learn sparse codes but, as has been noted before, linear reconstruction does not promote sparsity in any way. We know that the system will give the best reconstruction for input when all the neurons participate in the representation. If all the correlations between the weight vectors were negative or zero then the neurons would have no competition and they all could participate in the representation. Therefore, if we only minimised the linear reconstruction error defined by equation 3.8, the correlations between weight vectors would decrease until all competition would vanish. Then would automatically mean , and the code would not be sparse at all.

In order to learn sparse codes, we have to make a minor, biologically plausible addition to the learning rule. The result will be a combination of gradient descent of reconstruction error and use of neighbourhoods as in SOM [Kohonen, 1995]. If we only minimised the linear reconstruction error, the weight vectors would be pulled away from each other. The use of neighbourhoods introduces an opposing force which tries to turn the vectors more parallel. Those directions where input density is large get more weight vectors, and the resolution of the representation will be proportionally sharper. This result is qualitatively similar to that with SOM algorithm [Ritter and Schulten, 1986]. (For more information about SOM see the Master's Thesis of Jaakko Hollmén).

We shall first derive the first part of the learning rule by using gradient descent. In order to do this, we have to find the gradient of the quadratic reconstruction error with respect to the weight vectors , which are the parameters of the network.

Here the reconstruction error . The last step follows from equation 2.2 as explained in the beginning of this section. The standard gradient descent learning rule would be

Here is the learning rate governing the length of steps taken in the descending direction of the gradient.

The second part of the learning rule will look a bit similar to SOM learning rule [Kohonen, 1995]. SOM is a vector quantisation algorithm and is derived using the restriction that exactly one of the outputs is one and the rest are zero. The main difference between SOM and most other VQ algorithms is the use of neighbourhoods in adaptation. In addition to adapting the winning neuron, also its neighbours are adapted. In SOM algorithm, the learning rule for the model vectors is

The amount of adaptation due to the cooperation is governed by the
neighbourhood function . The reconstruction of input for each neuron in
SOM is . There is also only one winner
*c* and thus .
Therefore the learning rule could also be written

Here the weight vector is adapted in the direction of reconstruction error plus the direction of the reconstruction . In our case there can be many winners and for each of them the reconstruction is different.

We can combine the use of neighbourhoods in equation 3.16 and the reconstruction error minimisation in equation 3.14 and sum the adaptations over all winners.

We have introduced a coefficient , which can be used to regulate the ratio between adaptation due to the reconstruction error minimisation and adaptation due to the cooperation in the neighbourhood. The weight vectors have to be normalised after each adaptation. Due to the normalisation we can drop away the term . It has the same direction as and therefore normalisation cancels its affect anyway.

The determination of winning ratios in equation 3.6 required knowledge of the correlations between weight vectors. It would be quite a heavy operation to compute the correlations after each input, and therefore we shall use the batch version of the adaptation algorithm. The adaptations are summed over a set of indices in the batch. Also the normalisation of weight vectors can be done after each batch. When using the batch version of the learning rule, the learning rate parameter can be dropped away.

Here we supposed that the neighbourhood function does not change in time. As can be seen from the equation, the use of batch version enables us to move the summation over the neighbourhoods outside the batch, and therefore it needs to be done only once after each batch. On the other hand, writing the summations in this order prevents us from adapting only the set of winners and their neighbours. If the batch is sufficiently long, there are so many winners, however, that this order is computationally more efficient.

Thu May 9 14:06:29 DST 1996