**2018**

Juuti, M., Corona, F., and Karhunen, J., Stochastic
Discriminant Analysis for Linear Supervised Dimension Reduction. *Neurocomputing*,
Vol. 291, 2018, pp. 136-150. The .pdf file here is the authors' final version of the
paper in their own format.

**2017**

Palumbo, P., Sayfullina, L., Komashinskiy, D., Eirola, E., and Karhunen, J.,
A Pragmatic Android Malware Detection Procedure.
*Computers & Security*, Vol. 70, September 2017, pp. 689-701. The .pdf file here is the
authors' final version of the paper in their own format.

Toosi, T., Sirola, M., Laukkanen, J., van Heeswijk, M., and Karhunen, J.,
Detecting Aging of Process Sensors with Noise Signal
Measurement. To appear in Proc. of *The 9th IEEE Int. Conf. on Intelligent
Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications
(IDAACS'2017)*, Bucharest, Romania, September 2017. 6 pages.

Ishikawa, S., Laaksonen, J., and Karhunen, J.,Image
Pseudo Tag Generation with Deep Boltzmann Machine and Topic-Concept Similarity Match.
To appear in Proc. of *The Int. Joint Conf. on Neural Networks (IJCNN 2017)*,
Anchorage, Alaska, USA, May 2017. 8 pages.

**2016**

Lankinen, M., Heikinheimo, H., Takala, P., Raiko, T., and Karhunen, J., A Character-Word Compositional Neural Language Model for Finnish, December 2016, 11 pages. http://arxiv.org/abs/1612.03266 .

Zhao, C., van Heeswijk, M., and Karhunen, J.,Air Quality
Forecasting Using Neural Networks. In Proc. of *The IEEE Symposium Series on Computational
Intelligence (IEEE SSCI 2016)*, Athens, Greece, December 2016. 7 pages.

Sayfullina, L., Eirola, E., Komashinsky, D., Palumbo, P., and Karhunen, J.,
Android Malfare Detection: Building Useful
Representations. In Proc. of *The IEEE 15th Int. Conf. on Machine
Learning and Applications (ICMLA 2016)*, Anaheim, California, USA,
December 2016. 6 pages.

Wang, H., Raiko, T., Lensu, L., Wang, T., and Karhunen, J.,
Semi-Supervised Domain Adaptation for Weakly Labeled
Semantic Video Object Segmentation. In Proc. of *The 13th Asian Conf.
on Computer Vision (ACCV 2016)*, Taipei, Taiwan, November 2016. 16 pages.

Grigorievskiy, A., and Karhunen, J., Gaussian
Process Kernels for Popular State-Space Time Series Models. In Proc. of
*The Int. Joint. Conf. on Neural Networks (IJCNN 2016)*, Vancouver, Canada, July 2016.
10 pages. Note: IJCNN 2016 is a part of the larger conference IEEE World Congress on
Computational Intelligence (IEEE WCCI 2016).

**2015**

Sayfullina, L., Eirola, E., Komashinsky, D., Palumbo, P., Miche, Y., Lendasse, A.,
and Karhunen, J. Efficient Detection of Zero-Day
Android Malfare Using Normalized Bernoulli Naive Bayes. In Proc. of *The 14th
IEEE Int. Conf. on Trust, Security, and Privacy in Computing and Communications
(IEEE TrustCom-15)*, Helsinki, Finland, August 2015. 8 pages.

Karhunen, J., Raiko, T., and Cho, K., Unsupervised Deep Learning:
A Short Review. This paper has been published with different layout but the same contents
as Chapter 7, pp. 125-142, in the book E. Bingham, S. Kaski, J. Laaksonen, and J. Lampinen
(Eds.), *,Advances in Independent Component Analysis and Learning Methods*, Academic
Press, 2015.

Akusok, A., Miche, Y., Karhunen, J., Björk, K.-M., Nian, R., and Lendasse, A.,
Arbitrary Category Classification of Websites Based on Image
Content. Presented in the 5th Int. Conf. on Extreme Learning Machines (ELM2014),
Singapore, December 2014. Published in modified form in the *IEEE Computational Intelligence
Magazine*, May 2015, pp. 30-41.

Juuti, M., Corona, F., and Karhunen, J., Stochastic Discriminant
Analysis. In Proc. of *The Int. Joint. Conf. on Neural Networks (IJCNN 2015)*,
Killarney, Ireland, July 2015. 8 pages.

Cho, K., Raiko, T., Ilin, A., and Karhunen, J., A Two-Stage
Pretraining Algorithm for Deep Boltzmann Machines. Published under the title "How to
Pretrain Deep Boltzmann Machines in Two Stages" in the book P. Koprinkova-Hristova,
V. Mladenov, and N. Kasabov (Eds.), *Artificial Neural Networks - Methods and Applications*,
Springer Series in Bio-/Neuroinformatics, 2015, pp. 201-219.

Berglund, M., Raiko, T., Honkala, M., Kärkkäinen, L., Vetek, A., and Karhunen, J.,
Bidirectional Recurrent Neural Networks as Generative
Models - Reconstructing Gaps in Time Series. To appear in Proc. of *The 29th
Annual Conf. on Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS 2015)*, Montreal, Canada,
December 2015. 9 pages.

**2014**

Akusok, A., Miche, Y., Karhunen, J., Björk, K.-M., Nian, R., and Lendasse, A.,
Arbitrary Category Classification of Websites Based on Image
Content . In *Proc. of the 5th Int. Conf. on Extreme Learning Machines (ELM2014)*,
Singapore, December 2014.

Eirola, E., Lendasse, A., and Karhunen, J., Variable
Selection for Regression Problems Using Gaussian Mixture Models to Estimate Mutual
Information. In *Proc. of the 2014 Int. Joint Conf. on Neural Networks
(IJCNN 2014)*, pp. 1606-1613. A part of *the 2014 IEEE World Congress of Computational
Intelligence (WCCI 2014)*, Beijing, China, July 2014.

**2013**

Saponaro, G., Kolmonen, P., Karhunen, J., Tamminen, J., and de Leeuw, G.,
A Neural Network Algorithm for Cloud Fraction Estimation Using
NASA-Aura OMI VIS Radiance Measurements. *Atmospheric Measurement Techniques*, vol. 6,
2013, pp. 2301-2309.

Karhunen, J., Hao, T., and Ylipaavalniemi, J.,
Finding Dependent and
Independent Components from Related Data Sets: A Generalized Canonical Correlation Analysis
Based Method. *Neurocomputing*, Vol. 113, August 2013, pp. 153-167.

Cho, K., Raiko, T., Ilin, A., and Karhunen, J., A Two-Stage
Pretraining Algorithm for Deep Boltzmann Machines. In V. Mladenov et al. (Eds.), *Proc.
of the 2013 Int. Conf. on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN 2013)*, Sofia, Bulgaria,
September 2013. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, volume 8131, pages 106-113, Springer-Verlag,
Berlin, 2013. A formal publication, shortened from the NIPS 2012 workshop paper.

**2012**

Cho, K., Raiko, T., Ilin, A., and Karhunen, J., A Two-Stage
Pretraining Algorithm for Deep Boltzmann Machines. Presented in the *NIPS 2012 Workshop on Deep
Learning and Unsupervised Learning*, Lake Tahoe, Nevada, USA, December 2012. Note that this paper
is formally not a publication because the workshop did not have proceedings..

Hao, T., Raiko, T., Ilin, A., and Karhunen, J., Gated Boltzmann Machines
in Texture Modeling. In *Proc. of the 2012 Int. Conf. on Artificial Neural Networks
(ICANN 2012)*, Lausanne, Switzerland, September 2012. Artificial Neural Networks and
Machine Learning - ICANN 2012, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, volume 7553, pages 124-131,
Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012.

Luttinen, J., Ilin, A., and Karhunen, J.,
Bayesian Robust PCA of Incomplete
Data. *Neural Processing Letters*, Vol. 36, No. 2, June 2012, pp. 189-202.

Karhunen, J., Hao, T., and Ylipaavalniemi, J.,
A Generalized Canonical Correlation Analysis
Based Method for Blind Source Separation from Related Data Sets. In *Proc. of the
2012 Int. Joint Conf. on Neural Networks (IJCNN 2012)*, Brisbane, Australia,
June 2012.

Karhunen, J., Hao, T., and Ylipaavalniemi, J.,
A Canonical Correlation Analysis Based Method for Improving BSS of Two Related Data Sets.
In *Proc. of the 10th Int. Conf. on Latent Variable Analysis and Signal
Separation (LVA/ICA 2012)*, Tel-Aviv, Israel, March 2012. Lecture Notes in Computer
Science, Vol. 7191, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2012, pp. 91-98.

**2011**

Karhunen, J., Robust PCA Methods for Complete and
Missing Data. *Neural Network World*, Vol. 21, No. 5, 2011, pp. 357-392.

Karhunen, J., and Hao, T., Finding Dependent and Independent
Components from Two Related Data Sets. In *Proc. of the Int. Joint Conf. on Neural
Networks (IJCNN 2011)*, San Jose, California, USA, August 2011, pp. 457-466.

**2010**

Honkela, A., Raiko, T., Kuusela, M., Tornio, M., and Karhunen, J.,
Approximate Riemannian
Conjugate Gradient Learning for Fixed-Form Variational Bayes.
*Journal of Machine Learning Research*, Vol. 11, November 2010, pp. 3283-3316.

Jutten, C., Babaie-Zadeh, M., and Karhunen, J., "Nonlinear Mixtures", Chapter 14, pp. 549-592, in C. Jutten and P. Comon (Eds.), Handbook of Blind Source Separation, Independent Component Analysis and Applications, Academic Press, 2010.

**2009**

Kuusela, M., Raiko, T., Honkela, A., and Karhunen, J.,
A Gradient-Based Algorithm Competitive with Variational
Bayesian EM for Mixture of Gaussians. In *Proc. of the IEEE 2009 Int. Conf.
on Neural Networks (IJCNN2009)*, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, June 2009, pp. 1688--1695.

Luttinen, J., Ilin, A., and Karhunen, J.,
Bayesian Robust PCA for Incomplete Data.
In *Proc. of the 8th Int. Conf. on Independent Component Analysis and Signal
Separation (ICA 2009),* Paraty, Brazil, March 15-18, 2009. Published in Lecture Notes
in Computer Science, vol. 5441, Springer-Verlag, 2009, pp. 66-73.

**2008**

Raiko, T., Ilin, A., and Karhunen, J.,
Principal Component Analysis for Sparse High-Dimensional
Data. In *Proc. of the 14th Int. Conf. on Neural Information Processing (ICONIP2007)*,
Kitakyushu, Japan, November 13-16, 2007. Published in Lecture Notes
in Computer Science, vol. 4985, Springer-Verlag, 2008, pp. 566-575.

Honkela, A., Tornio, M., Raiko, T., and Karhunen, J.,
Natural Conjugate Gradient in Variational Inference.
In *Proc. of the 14th Int. Conf. on Neural Information Processing (ICONIP2007)*,
Special session on ``Information geometry and information theory
in machine learning'', Kitakyushu, Japan, November 13-16, 2007. Published in
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 4985, Springer-Verlag, 2008, pp. 305-314.

Raiko, T., Puolamäki, K., Karhunen, J., Hollmén, J., Honkela, A., Kaski, S., Mannila,
H., Oja, E., and Simula, O., Macadamia: Master's Programme
in Machine Learning and Data Mining.
In *Teaching Machine Learning: Workshop on open problems and new directions*,
Saint-Étienne, France, May 2008.

Honkela, A., Harva, M., Raiko, T., and Karhunen, J.,
Variational Inference and Learning for
Continuous-Time Nonlinear State-Space Models. In *Proc. of PASCAL 2008 Workshop
on Approximate Inference in Stochastic Processes and Dynamical Systems*,
Cumberland Lodge, UK, May 2008.

**2007**

Raiko, T., Valpola, H., Harva, M., and Karhunen, J.,
Building Blocks for Variational Bayesian
Learning of Latent Variable Models.
*Journal of Machine Learning Research*, Vol. 8, January 2007, pp.
155-201.

Karhunen, J., and Ukkonen, T.,
Extending ICA for Finding Jointly Dependent Components from Two Related Data Sets.
*Neurocomputing*, Vol. 70, Issues 16-18, October 2007, pp. 2969-2769.
Publisher's electronic version.
Note: Please use the method in my 2013 paper "Finding Dependent and Independent
Components from Related Data Sets ...", it is much better than this one.

Honkela, A., Valpola, H., Ilin, A., and Karhunen, J.,,
Blind Separation of Nonlinear Mixtures
by Variational Bayesian Learning.
*Digital Signal Processing*, Special issue on Bayesian
Source Separation, Vol. 17, Issue 5, September 2007, pp. 914-934.

Tornio, M., Honkela, A., and Karhunen, J.,
Time Series Prediction with Variational Bayesian
Nonlinear State-Space Models.
In *Proc. of the European Symp. on Time Series Prediction (ESTSP'07)*,
Espoo, Finland, February 7-9, 2007, pp. 11-19.

Raiko, T., Ilin, A., and Karhunen, J.,
Principal Component Analysis for Large Scale
Problems with Lots of Missing Values.
In *Proc. of the 12th European Conf. on Machine Learning (ECML 2007),
*Warsaw, Poland, September 2007, published in J. Kok et al. (Eds.),
Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, vol. 4701, Springer-Verlag, 2007,
pp. 691-698.

**2006**

Karhunen, J., and Ukkonen, T.,
Generalizing Independent Component Analysis
for Two Related Data Sets. In *Proc. of the IEEE 2006 Int. Conf.
on Neural Networks / 2006 IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence
(IJCNN2006/WCCI2006)*, Vancouver, Canada, July 2006, pp. 1822-1829.
Note: Please use the method in my 2013 paper "Finding Dependent and Independent
Components from Related Data Sets ...", it is much better than this one.

Raju, K., Ristaniemi, T., Karhunen, J., and Oja, E.,
Jammer Suppression in DS-CDMA Arrays
Using Independent Component Analysis.
*IEEE Trans. on Wireless Communications*, Vol. 5, No. 1, January 2006,
pp. 77-82.

Raiko, T., Tornio, M., Honkela, A., and Karhunen, J.,
State Inference in Variational Bayesian
Nonlinear State-Space Models. In *J. Rosca, D. Erdogmus, J. Principe,
and S. Haykin (Eds.), Independent Component Analysis and Blind Signal Separation,
6th Int. Conf. (ICA2006). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3889, Springer
2006, pp. 222-229*. (Charleston, South Carolina, USA, March 5-8, 2006.)

**2005**

Harva, M., Raiko, T., Honkela, A., Valpola, H., and Karhunen, J.,
Bayes Blocks: An Implementation of the
Variational Bayesian Building Blocks Framework. In *Proc. of the
21st Conf. on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI2005)*,
Edinburgh, United Kingdom, July 26-29, 2005, pp. 259-266.

**2004**

Jutten, C., and Karhunen, J.,
Advances in Blind Source Separation (BSS)
and Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for Nonlinear Mixtures.
*Int. J. Neural Systems* , Vol. 14, No. 5, 2004, pp. 267-292.

Valpola, H., Harva, M, and Karhunen, J.,
Hierachical Models of Variance Sources.
*Signal Processing* , Vol. 84, No. 2, February 2004, pp. 267-282.

Raju, K., Ristaniemi, T., and Karhunen, J.,
Semi-Blind Interference Suppression on
Coherent Multipath Environments. In *Proc. of the First Int. Symp.
on Control, Communications, and Signal Processing (ISCCSP2004)*, Hammamet,
Tunisia, March 21-24,2004.

**2003**

Jutten, C., and Karhunen, J.,
Advances in Nonlinear Blind Source
Separation. In *Proc. of the 4th Int. Symp. on Independent
Component Analysis and Blind Signal Separation (ICA2003)*, Nara, Japan,
April 1-4, 2003, pp. 245-256.

Ristaniemi, T., Raju, K., Karhunen, J., and Oja, E.,
Inter-Cell Interference Cancellation
in CDMA Array Systems by Independent Component Analysis.
In *Proc. of the 4th Int. Symp. on Independent Component Analysis and Blind
Signal Separation (ICA2003)*, Nara, Japan, April 1-4, 2003, pp. 739-744.

Valpola, H., Harva, M., and Karhunen, J.,
Hierachical Models of Variance Sources.
In *Proc. of the 4th Int. Symp. on Independent Component Analysis and Blind
Signal Separation (ICA2003)*, Nara, Japan, April 1-4, 2003, pp. 83-88.

Valpola, H., Östman, T., and Karhunen, J.,
Nonlinear Independent Factor Analysis by
Hierarchical Models.
In *Proc. of the 4th Int. Symp. on Independent Component Analysis and Blind
Signal Separation (ICA2003)*, Nara, Japan, April 1-4, 2003, pp. 257-262.

Valpola, H., Oja, E., Ilin, A., Honkela, A., and Karhunen, J.,
Nonlinear Blind Source Separation by
Variational Bayesian Learning. *IEICE Transactions (Japan)*,
Vol. E86-A, No. 3, March 2003, pp. 532-541.

Raiko, T., Valpola, H., Östman, T., and Karhunen, J.,
Missing Values in Hierarchical Nonlinear Factor
Analysis. In *Proc. of Int. Conf. on Artificial Neural Networks and
Neural Information Processing (ICANN/ICONIP 2003)*, Istambul, Turkey,
June 26-29, 2003, pp. 185-188.

Honkela, A., Valpola, H., and Karhunen, J.,
Accelerating Cyclic Update Algorithms
for Parameter Estimation by Pattern Searches.
*Neural Processing Latters*, Vol. 17, No. 2, April 2003, pp. 191-203.

**2002**

Valpola, H., and Karhunen, J.,
An Unsupervised Ensemble Learning
Method for Nonlinear Dynamic State-Space Models.
*Neural Computation*, Vol. 14, No. 11, 2002, pp. 2647-2692.

Ristaniemi, T., Raju, K., and Karhunen, J.,
Jammer Mitigation
in DS-CDMA Array Systems Using Independent Component Analysis.
In *Proc. of the 2002 IEEE Int. Conf. on Communications
(ICC2002)*, New York City, NY, USA, April 28 - May 2, 2002.

Valpola, H., Honkela, A., and Karhunen, J.,
An Ensemble Learning
Approach to Nonlinear Dynamic Blind Source Separation Using State-Space
Models. In *Proc. of the Int. Joint Conf. on
Neural Networks (IJCNN2002)*, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, May 12-17, 2002,
pp. 460-465. In the special invited session Advances on Independent
Component Analysis.

Raju, K., Ristaniemi, T., Karhunen, J., and Oja, E.,
Suppression of Bit-Pulsed Jammer Signals
in DS-CDMA Array Systems Using Independent Component Analysis.
In *Proc. of the 2002 IEEE Int. Symp. on Circuits and Systems
(ISCAS2002)*, Phoenix, Arizona, USA, May 26-29, 2002, vol. I,
pp. 189-192.

Ristaniemi, T., Raju, K., Karhunen, J., and Oja, E.,
Jammer Cancellation in DS-CDMA Arrays: Pre and
Post Switching of ICA and RAKE. To appear in
*Proc. of the 2002 IEEE Workshop on Neural Networks for Signal
Processing (NNSP02)*, Martigny, Switzerland, September 4-6, 2002,
pp. 495-504.

**2001**

Hyvärinen, A., Karhunen, J., and Oja, E., *Independent Component
Analysis*. J. Wiley 2001, 481+xxii pages. See
the homepage
of the book for more information and ordering instructions.

Valpola, H., Raiko, T., and Karhunen, J.,
Building Blocks for Hierarchical Latent
Variable Models. In *Proc. of the 3rd Int. Workshop on Independent
Component Analysis and Signal Separation (ICA2001)*, San Diego,
California, USA, December 9-13, 2001, pp. 710-715.

Valpola, H., Honkela, A., and Karhunen, J.,
Nonlinear Static and Dynamic Blind Source
Separation Using Ensemble Learning. In *Proc. of the Int.
Joint Conf. on Neural Networks (IJCNN'01)*, July 2001, Washington D.C.,
USA, pp. 2750-2755. In the special invited session *Nonparametric
Information Theoretic Algorithms for Learning*.

Karhunen, J., Nonlinear Independent
Component Analysis. A review chapter in the book R. Everson and S. Roberts
(Eds.), *ICA: Principles and Practice*. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, UK, 2001, pp. 113-134.

**2000**

Karhunen, J., Malaroiu, S., and Ilmoniemi, M.,
Local Linear Independent Component Analysis
Using Clustering.*Int. Journal of Neural Systems*, vol. 10, no. 6,
November/December 2000, pp. 439-451.

Cristescu, R., Ristaniemi, T., Joutsensalo, J., and Karhunen, J.,
Blind Separation of Convolved Mixtures for
CDMA Systems.In *Proc. of the X European Signal Processing
Conference (EUSIPCO 2000)*, Tampere, Finland, September 5-8, 2000,
pp. 619-622.

Lappalainen, H., Honkela, A., Giannakopoulos, X., and Karhunen, J.,
Nonlinear Source Separation Using Ensemble
Learning and MLP Networks.In *Proc. of the Symposium 2000
on Adaptive Systems for Signal Processing, Communications, and Control
(AS-SPCC)*, Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, October 1-4, 2000, pp. 187-192.

Lappalainen, H., Giannakopoulos, X., Honkela, A., and Karhunen, J.,
Nonlinear Independent Component Analysis
Using Ensemble Learning: Experiments and Discussion.In
*Proc. of the 2nd Int. Workshop on Independent Component Analysis
and Blind Source Separation (ICA2000)*, Espoo, Finland, June 19-22,
2000, pp. 351-356.

Cristescu, R., Joutsensalo, J., Karhunen, J., and Oja, E.,
A Complexity Minimization Approach for
Estimating Fading Gaussian Channel in CDMA Communications.In
*Proc. of the 2nd Int. Workshop on Independent Component Analysis
and Blind Source Separation (ICA2000)*, Espoo, Finland, June 19-22,
2000, pp. 527-532.

Cristescu, R., Ristaniemi, T., Joutsensalo, J, and Karhunen, J.,
Delay Estimation in CDMA Communications
Using a Fast ICA Algorithm.In *Proc. of the 2nd Int. Workshop on
Independent Component Analysis and Blind Source Separation (ICA2000)*,
Espoo, Finland, June 19-22, 2000, pp. 105-110.

**1999**

Giannakopoulos, X., Karhunen, J., and Oja, E.,
An Experimental Comparison of Neural
Algorithms for Independent Component Analysis and Blind Separation.
*Int. Journal of Neural Systems*, vol. 9, no. 2, April 1999, pp. 99-114.

Cichocki, A., Karhunen, J., Kasprzak, W., and Vigario, R.,
Neural Networks for Blind Separation
with Unknown Number of Sources. *Neurocomputing*, vol. 24, nos. 1-3,
February 1999, pp. 55-94.

Karhunen, J., and Malaroiu, S.,
Locally Linear Independent Component Analysis.In *Proc. of the Int. Joint Conf. on Neural Networks (IJCNN'99)*,
July 1999, Washington D.C., USA, pp. 882-887.

Giannakopoulos, X., Karhunen, J., and Oja, E.,
An Experimental Comparison of Neural ICA
Algorithms with Real-World Data.In *Proc. of the Int. Joint Conf. on
Neural Networks (IJCNN'99)*, July 1999, Washington D.C., USA, pp. 888-893.

Karhunen, J., and Malaroiu, S.,
Local Independent Component Analysis Using
Clustering. In C. Jutten, J.-F. Cardoso, and P. Loubaton (Eds.),*
Proc. First Int. Workshop on
Independent Component Analysis and Signal Separation (ICA'99)*,
January 11 - 15, 1999, Aussois, France, pp. 43-48.

**1998**

Karhunen, J., Pajunen, P., and Oja, E., The
Nonlinear PCA Criterion in Blind Source Separation: Relations with Other
Approaches. *Neurocomputing*, vol. 22, November 1998, pp. 5-20.

Giannakopoulos, X., Karhunen, J., and Oja, E.,
An Experimental Comparison of Neural ICA
Algorithms. *In L. Niklasson, M. Boden, and T. Ziemke (Eds.), ICANN98
(Proc. 8th Int. Conf. on Artificial Neural Networks, Skovde, Sweden,
September 2-4, 1998)*, Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1998, pp. 651-656.

Pajunen, P., and Karhunen, J., Least-Squares
Methods for Blind Source Separation Based on Nonlinear PCA (scanned version).
*Int. Journal of Neural Systems*, vol. 8, nos. 5 and 6, October/December
1998, pp. 601-612.

**1997**

Karhunen, J., Oja, E., Wang, L., Vigario, R., and Joutsensalo, J.,
A Class of Neural Networks for Independent
Component Analysis. *IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks *, vol. 8, no. 3,
May 1997, pp. 486-504.

Karhunen, J., Cichocki, A., Kasprzak, W., and Pajunen, P.,
On Neural Blind Separation with Noise Suppression
and Redundancy Reductions (scanned version). *Int. Journal of Neural Systems*,
vol. 8, no. 2, April 1997, pp. 219-237.

Pajunen, P., and Karhunen, J.,
A Maximum
Likelihood Approach to Nonlinear Blind Source Separation. *In W.
Gerstner, M. Hasler, and J.-D. Nicoud (Eds.), Artificial Neural Networks -
ICANN'97*, Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1997, pp. 541-546.

Karhunen, J., Hyvärinen, A., Vigario, R., Hurri, J, and Oja, E.,
Applications of Neural Blind Source Separation
to Signal and Image Processing. *In Proc. IEEE 1997 Int. Conf. on
Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP'97)*, April 21 - 24, 1997,
Munich, Germany, pp. 131-134 (invited paper).

Karhunen, J., and Pajunen, P., Blind
Source Separation Using Least-Squares Type Adaptive Algorithms.
*In Proc. IEEE 1997 Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing
(ICASSP'97)*, April 21 - 24, 1997, Munich, Germany, pp. 3361-3364.

**1996**

Karhunen, J., Neural Approaches to
Independent Component Analysis and Source Separation. *In Proc. 4th
European Symposium on Artificial Neural Networks (ESANN'96)*,
April 24 - 26, 1996, Bruges, Belgium, pp. 249-266 (invited paper).

Wang. L., and Karhunen, J., A Unified Neural
Bigradient Algorithm for Robust PCA and MCA (scanned version). *Int. Journal
of Neural Systems*, vol. 7, no. 1, March 1996, pp. 53-67.

**1995**

Karhunen, J., and Joutsensalo, J., Generalizations
of Principal Component Analysis, Optimization Problems, and Neural Networks.
*Neural Networks*, vol. 8, no. 4, 1995, pp. 549-562.

**1994**

Karhunen, J., Stability of Oja's PCA Subspace Rule.
*Neural Computation*, vol. 6, July 1994, pp. 739-747.

Karhunen, J., and Joutsensalo, J., Representation
and Separation of Signals Using Nonlinear PCA Type Learning (scanned version).
*Neural Networks*, vol. 7, no. 1, 1994, pp. 113-127.

**1992**

Karhunen, J., and Joutsensalo, J., Sinusoidal Frequency
Estimation by Signal Subspace Approximation. *IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing*,
vol. 40, no. 12, December 1992, pp. 2961-2972.

**1985**

Oja, E. and Karhunen, J., On Stochastic Approximation of the
Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues of the Expectation of a Random Matrix (scanned version).
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, Vol. 106, No. 1, February 1985,
pp. 69-84.

Oja, E., Karhunen, J., Hyvärinen, A., Vigario, R., and Hurri, J.,
Neural Independent Component Analysis - Approaches and Applications.
*In S.-I. Amari and N. Kasabov (Eds.), Brain-Like Computing and Intelligent
Information Systems*, Springer-Verlag, Singapore, 1997, pp. 167-188
(invited plenary paper at ICONIP'97).

Oja, E. and Karhunen, J., An Analysis of Convergence for a Learning Version of the
Subspace Method, *Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*, Vol. 91,
No. 1, January 1983, pp. 102-111.