# Lesson 5: Siteswap 423

Siteswap notation is a very effective tool for describing juggling patterns. In the basic form, it consists of a string of numbers that tell the type of each throw. It is assumed that the hands alternate and that the string loops after the end. The number corresponds to the number of beats after which the same ball is thrown again. The throws are:
0 Hand is (and stays) empty.
1 Quick pass to the other hand.
2 Ball is held in the hand.
3 Normal throw to the other hand.
4 Normal throw to the same hand.
5 High throw to the other hand.

The higher the number, the higher the throw (this tutorial does not go beyond 5). Note that odd number means a throw to the other hand. Note also that only some strings produce valid siteswaps (see Lesson 18 for more information). Yet another note: The number of balls is the average of the string.

The patterns in previous lessons can be written in siteswap notation: Three-ball cascade is 3 (regardless of inside/outside throws). Two balls in one hand is 40. Swoops are 42. In this lesson we will learn siteswap 423.

Step 1. Learn to switch between three-ball cascade and two in one hand. Learn both sides.

Step 2. Switch all the time. This is basic siteswap 423. Note how only the blue ball switches hands.

Step 3. Use an outside throw for each 4 to get columns. You are done!

423-tennis. Another simple variation is to use an outside throw for each 3 instead.

Double yo-yo. Siteswap 423 has dozens of variations. Most are concentrated on using the 2 creatively. Here is an example that you might want to return to later.

Orbits. This is a 423-variation I included here only because I invented it myself. It is more difficult than it looks, so learning efforts are best spent on other things.