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The linear principal and independent component analysis (PCA and ICA) model the data as having been generated by independent sources through a linear mapping. The difference between the two is that PCA restricts the distribution of the sources to be Gaussian, whereas ICA does not, in general, restrict the distribution of the sources.

In this chapter we introduce nonlinear counterparts of PCA and ICA where the generative mapping form sources to data is not restricted to be linear. The general form of the models discussed here is

\begin{displaymath}\vec{x}(t) = f(\vec{s}(t)) + \vec{n}(t) \, .
\end{displaymath} (1)

The vectors $\vec{x}(t)$ are observations at time t, $\vec{s}(t)$are the sources and $\vec{n}(t)$ the noise. The function f() is a parametrised mapping from source space to observation space. It can be viewed as a model about how the observations were generated from the sources.

Just as their linear counterparts, the nonlinear versions of PCA and ICA can be used for instance in dimension reduction and feature extraction. The difference between linear and nonlinear PCA is depicted in Fig. 1. In the linear PCA the data is described with a linear coordinate system whereas in the nonlinear PCA the coordinate system is nonlinear. The nonlinear PCA and ICA can be used for similar tasks as their linear counterparts, but they can be expected to capture the structure of the data better if the data points lie in a nonlinear manifold instead of a linear subspace.

Figure 1: On the left hand side the data is described with a linear coordinate system. On the right hand side the coordinate system is nonlinear

Usually the linear PCA and ICA models do not have an explicit noise term $\vec{n}(t)$ and the model is thus simply

\begin{displaymath}\vec{x}(t) = f(\vec{s}(t)) = \mathrm{A}\vec{s}(t) + \vec{b} \, .
\end{displaymath} (2)

The corresponding PCA and ICA models which include the noise term are often called factor analysis and independent factor analysis (FA and IFA) models. The nonlinear models discussed here can therefore also be called nonlinear factor analysis and nonlinear independent factor analysis models.

In this chapter, the distribution of sources is modelled with Gaussian density in PCA and mixture-of-Gaussians density in ICA. Given enough Gaussians in the mixture, any density can be modelled with arbitrary accuracy using the mixture-of-Gaussians density, which means that the source density model is universal. Likewise, the nonlinear mapping f() is modelled by a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) network which can approximate any nonlinear mapping with arbitrary accuracy given enough hidden neurons.

The noise on each observation channel (component of data vectors) is assumed to be independent and Gaussian, but the variance of the noise on different channels is not assumed to be equal. The noise could be modelled with a more general distribution, but we shall restrict the discussion to the simple Gaussian case. After all, noise is supposed to be something uninteresting and unstructured. If the noise is not Gaussian or independent, it is a sign of interesting structure which should be modelled by the generative mapping from the sources.

next up previous
Next: Choosing Among Competing Explanations Up: No Title Previous: No Title
Harri Lappalainen