Consider a complete communication network of $n$ nodes, where the nodes receive a common clock pulse. We study the synchronous $c$-counting problem: given any starting state and up to $f$ faulty nodes with arbitrary behaviour, the task is to eventually have all correct nodes labeling the pulses with increasing values modulo $c$ in agreement. Thus, we are considering algorithms that are self-stabilising despite Byzantine failures. In this work, we give new algorithms for the synchronous counting problem that (1) are deterministic, (2) have optimal resilience, (3) have a linear stabilisation time in $f$ (asymptotically optimal), (4) use a small number of states, and consequently, (5) communicate a small number of bits per round. Prior algorithms either resort to randomisation, use a large number of states and need high communication bandwidth, or have suboptimal resilience. In particular, we achieve an *exponential* improvement in both state complexity and message size for deterministic algorithms. Moreover, we present two complementary approaches for reducing the number of bits communicated during and after stabilisation.

- Christoph Lenzen, Joel Rybicki, and Jukka Suomela: Towards optimal synchronous counting · PODC 2015